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“Introduction” by Callicott Oral Report Script

“Introduction” by Callicott Oral Report Script Ryan Hsieh Date: 2013/12/26 p.2 • The Received Wilderness Idea • A notion of wilderness that inherited from Euro-American tradition • It is alleged to be ethnocentric, phallocentric, outmoded even genocidal • It has been the subject of heated debate • This anthology documents the current debate about the received wilderness idea 被認可的荒野的這個概念,是一種與西方文化所一派相承的概念。而這個概念常常被批評成一種帶有種族優越、父權主義、陽具中心、不科學的、過時的甚至是種滅絕的。 而這個概念近年來成為環境研究引起激烈辯論的主題。而這本文選就是呈現出環境研究界對於這個概念激烈的爭論。 p.3 • Part I. • In the “conversation of the West,” the voices giving shape to the concept of wilderness, those from we have received the wilderness idea • Their writings on wilderness also articulates the concept is variously criticized • “The Leopold Report” has exerted considerable influence on public wilderness policy in the United States 本文選第一部分標題是The Received Wilderness Idea,在第一部分我們將探討這個The Received Wilderness Idea(被認可的荒野概念)究竟是如何形成的,而這部分會被收錄的文章都是因為這些文章都能明確地呈現出Wilderness這個概念是飽受抨擊的尤其是指出它帶有種族優越和男權主義的意味。 “The Leopold Report”這份文件對美國官方的荒野政策有重要的影響。 • The Wilderness Act of 1964 • A legislation enacted by the Congress of the United States • It establishes a national system of wilderness preserves. • “A wilderness, is recognized as an area are untrammeled by man, where man is a visitor who does not remain” (p.4) “The Wilderness Act of 1964”(荒野法案)是被美國國會頒布的一項法規,而這項法規確立了荒野維護的國家性的管理制度。在這項法規裡,荒野被定義成不被人類限制 但是只供人類參觀、不可以居住的地方。 • Puritans and Wilderness • The “wilderness condition “ of North America was a preoccupation of the Puritans • The very success of their immigrant forebears in transforming the New England landscape into something resembling the landscape of the mother country 而荒野議題最早可以追朔到清教徒時期,北美的荒野狀況一直都是清教徒所關注的議題之一,而從英國搭乘五月花號來到美洲定居的清教徒,把英國那一套的生活方式整個帶到美洲來,使的新英格蘭(指美洲)的地景具有了與祖國(英國)相似的風味。 • The wild remnants of pre-settlement America that could be found in Connecticut and Massachusetts appeared innocent and pure • In Puritan thinking, Humanity/ Nature (p.5) • The first generation of Puritans thought of themselves primarily as God’s emissaries in the New World • To Puritans, New World was the wild, unruly stronghold of Satan 對清教徒來說,和其他荒野地方相比,那時的Connecticut and Massachusetts更顯得格外單純的和純潔的淨土。在清教徒的思考模式裡,只有兩種 (人-被神創造,以神的形象,但是墮落、墜落/另一種則是自然)。 對第一代的沉迷宗教的清教徒認為他們是神派來的新世界的密使,因為新世界是一種不受控制、蠻荒的一片撒旦的據點。 在Jonathan Edward栩栩如生的想像下,撒旦的據點變成來到美洲定居的歐洲人的邪惡的內心,而原始的美洲地景則如同伊甸園般。 • Part II • Chief Luther Standing Bear’s “Indian Wisdom’’: the wilderness idea was challenged by Native Americans • Standing Bear’s protest against the wilderness idea • Until very recently, the voices of Native Americans were muffled and ignored 而第二部分則呈現出第三世界和第四世界對荒野概念的看法及批判,例如:美洲印地安人酋長Luther Standing Bear’s “Indian Wisdom’’呈現出美洲印第安人對荒野概念的不滿,但直到現在,美洲印第安人的聲音都被忽視和壓抑,根本不被看在眼裡。 • Since World war II, American economic, political, and cultural influence has spread • The wilderness idea and the public policies were adopted by empowered elements in postcolonial nation-states, especially in Africa 自從二次大戰之後,美國的經濟、政治、文化思維紛紛被其他後殖民的民族國家所效法。例如荒野概念和公共政策。 • Africa • Nash’s “The International Perspective” (p.6) • the emergence of an international trade in the wilderness experience • African national parks Nash’s “The International Perspective”呈現出美國的荒野概念傳到非洲的狀況及其應用,特別是指非洲的國家公園。 • Harmon’s “Cultural Diversity, Human Subsistence, and the National Park Ideal” • the impact of the wilderness idea in Africa • Harmon reveals that these unfortunate people Ik had once been isolated gatherer- hunters by traditional means in the Kidepo highlands of Uganda • Ik are evicted from their homeland ... because Kidepo measures up to the American ideal of a wilderness park, a place “where man is a visitor who does not remain” Harmon’s “Cultural Diversity, Human Subsistence, and the National Park Ideal”呈現出荒野概念在非洲應用的後果,Harmon揭露出在非洲烏干達的Kidepo高地地區本來住著一個部族叫Ik,Ik的傳統方式是採集、狩獵為主,他們本來住的好好的,但後來因為非洲總統Milton Apollo Abote下了一道國家公園法令 Kidepo這個地區符合美國荒野的概念,一個只可以供人自由自在參觀但禁止居住,將要成立國家公園,後來這個部族Ik被迫遷徙、放棄他們的傳統方式。 • Harmon’s critique of the wilderness idea from a mostly fourth-world perspective-that is, from the perspective of disempowered traditional tribal groups whose way of life is threatened by “progress” and “development” in the third world 而Harmon對荒野概念的這個評論,是從第四世界的觀點所出發的。而所謂第四世界指的是 一群失去權力的傳統部族,而他們的傳統生活方式被第三世界的進步和發展所威脅。 p.7 • Australia • Fabienne Bayet’s “Overturning the Doctrine” • Bayet is an Australian Aboriginal woman of color and a committed environmentalist • In her essay, she exposes a more sinister aspect of the received wilderness idea 接著我們要來看澳洲的情況 Bayet’s “Overturning the Doctrine”:身為澳洲原住民的女性及環境的保護者的Bayet,她的文章“Overturning the Doctrine”揭露出被認可的荒野的概念的邪惡的觀點 • Bayet’s essay • To think of Australia before European settlement as a wilderness of continental proportions (an empty land) made the dispossession and extermination of its Aboriginal human inhabitants • The wilderness idea, in effect, erased those inhabitants from Western consciousness 在英澳法律體系,把歐洲人定居前的澳洲看作是一片空地,因此有之後的澳洲原住民的驅逐和消滅之舉。而這個被承認的荒野概念,純粹只是要掃除澳洲原住民的理由罷了。 • The editor’s response • The wilderness idea is unhistorical (p.8) • Australia was not a wilderness, was fully settled and actively managed by its Aboriginal inhabitants • Designated wilderness areas are a vital element in Australian nature conservation 編輯者對Bayet文章所做出的回應 編輯者(Callocott和Nelson)認為荒野概念是非歷史的,如同Bayet所說的澳洲根本不是一個荒野地區,因為那時已經有澳洲原住民在那裡居住了。不過編輯者認為標出荒野地區的舉動是澳洲自然維護一項重要得動作,就如同美國的舉動。 • Part III • Callicott’s “The Wilderness Idea Revisited” • The Received Wilderness Idea • A. The Pre- Darwinian separation of “man” from nature • B. Colonial Purpose • C. Antarctica is a wilderness area 而第三部份持續要對荒野這個概念做出批判和辯護 Callicott’s “The Wilderness Idea Revisited”揭露出了被認可的荒野概念呈現出的幾個特點 第1、這個概念 存在著前達爾文的思維把人從自然中分隔開來,(前達爾文的思維-人優於自然,萬物之靈)然而從進化論的看法,智人(人類)是自然的一部份。(進化論-人類也是從猿智人 慢慢演變的) 第2、這個概念適用於殖民的目的,把土著掃除有利於英國帝國的擴張。根據1964年的荒野法案對荒野的定義,只有南極洲完全符合,而美洲和澳洲由於早已有土著居住因此並不符合荒野的定義。 p.9 • Rolston III’s “The Wilderness Idea Reaffirmed” • A. Homo sapiens uniquely possesses culture so homo sapiens transcended nature • B. the Aboriginals little impacted their environments, largely “untrammeled” as per the definition of wilderness in the Widerness Act Rolston III’s “The Wilderness Idea Reaffirmed”針對Callicott的文章做出回應,Rolston 認為智人(人類) 從自然中分隔開來,因為人類是個獨特的擁有文化的族群,照字面的意思來說,智人(人類)優於自然。而Rolston 認為原住民對他們定居的環境能產生很少影響(不受限制的)因此符合荒野法案對荒野的定義。 p.10 • Noss ’s “ Sustainability and Wilderness” • Four values of designated and de facto wilderness areas • A. scientific value • B. biological value • C. value as a source of humility • D. intrinsic value Noss ’s “ Sustainability and Wilderness” 揭露出事實上被標出荒野地區 (保護區) 但不一定合法的四項條件:科學上的價值、生物的價值(某物種的棲息地,特別是指大型的肉食動物、humility的價值、及它固有的價值。 • Denevan’s “The Pristine Myth . . .” • A. the quincentennial of Columbus’s voyage • B. the pre-Columbian New World: a humanized landscape • C. Old World diseases à the Americas had been populatedà an artificial wilderness condition (p.11) Denevan’s “The Pristine Myth: The Landscape of the Americas in 1492”是一篇關於哥倫布的首次橫渡大西洋的航行,Denevan在這篇文章呈現出哥倫布時代前的新世界(南北美洲)已存在著文明的地景了,除此之外他還揭露出清教徒搭五月花號到美洲,不僅人過去了連當時歐洲盛行的傳染病也一起帶過去了,那時的美洲印地安人除了狗以外,沒有馴養其他動物,因此無法抵抗傳染病,起初20個人中還有1個人倖存,但在第一批英國人定居於美洲後,導致美洲當地印地安人的大量死去。因此當時地景如同荒野法案對荒野的定義一樣。因此編輯者認為這種荒野的狀況是人工的,因為這狀況不是故意也不是直接的造成,而是由於人類的影響。(由於英國人的大把入侵,帶來疾病,使得土著大量死亡
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